About Journal

The International Journal of Radiation Medicine and Nuclear Medicine is one of the national medical journals which is administered by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China and published by Chinese Medical Association and Institute of Radiation Medicine.

Founded in 1977, the journal was formerly known as Foreign Medicine: Radiation Medicine and Nuclear Medicine. In 2006, it was renamed The International Journal of Radiation Medicine and Nuclear Medicine. 

The journal takes the scientific research personnel and clinicians engaging in radiation medicine and nuclear medicine or the related areas as the target readers, the original article, review and reports in the international academic conference as the main forms. It particularly reports the new trends, recent developments, up-to-date technologies, and the newly-acquired experience in overseas and mainland in the fields of radiation medicine and nuclear medicine with the domestic situation, emphasizes article’s scientificalness and timeliness. This print specialized in experimental nuclear medicine, clinical nuclear medicine, radiobiology, clinical radiation medicine, radiation does, damage and radiation protection, radioactive labeling of drugs, molecular biology technology, radiation and security and related standards and regulations.

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Superintended by: National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China

Sponsored by:  Chinese Medical Association
Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

Editor: Editorial Board of International Journal of Radiation Medicine and Nuclear Medicine

Publisher: Editorial Office of International Journal of Radiation Medicine and Nuclear Medicine

Editor-in-Chief: Fan Saijun

Managing Director: Song Naling

Address: 238 Baidi Road, Nankai, Tianjin

Tel: 86-22-58089989
86-22-85682389

Fax: 86-22-58089989

CSSN: ISSN 1673-4114
CN 12-1381/R

Issue Code: 6-102

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Order: Post Offices of all over the country

Email: gjfh2006@irm-cams.ac.cn

Price: 30 yuan/Issue, 360 yuan/Year

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The new progress of 18F-FDG PET/CT in predicting the mutation status of EGFR gene in non-small cell lung cancer
Jianxiong Gao, Rong Niu, Xiaonan Shao, Yuetao Wang
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202107012-00179
[Abstract](6) [FullText HTML](3) [PDF 0KB](0)
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Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the main cause of cancer-related death, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being the predominant type. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in the development of NSCLC and has become an important target in the treatment of NSCLC. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have been widely used in the targeted therapy of NSCLC and have been shown to effectively prolong the survival of patients with EGFR mutations, and their efficacy and prognosis are similar to those of EGFR mutations. 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging can non-invasively evaluate NSCLC and is of great significance in predicting EGFR gene mutation status in NSCLC. The author reviews the recent advances in metabolic parameters and radiomics related to 18F-FDG PET/CT and EGFR mutation status.
Research progress in 18F-Flurpiridaz PET absolute quantitative myocardial blood flow imaging
Jiao Wang, Jianming Li
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202107008-00178
[Abstract](98) [FullText HTML](91) [PDF 0KB](1)
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PET absolute quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) imaging has significant clinical incremental value in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognosis evaluation of coronary artery disease. Still, it has not been widely used in the clinic due to the limitation of conventional positron myocardial perfusion imaging agents. The successful development of 2-tert-butylchloro-5[4-(2-fluoro-18F-ethoxymethyl) phenyl methoxy]-3(2H)-pyridazine ketone (18F-Flurpiridaz) has pioneered a new field of positron myocardial perfusion imaging agents. It has excellent absolute quantitative property in MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) and has obvious advantages over traditional positron myocardial perfusion imaging agents in physical properties, myocardial extraction rate, and application convenience in the clinic, also, it has entered clinical phase Ⅲ research and has become the most promising 18F-labeled PET myocardial perfusion imaging agents. The authors review the research progress in 18F-Flurpiridaz PET absolute quantitative MBF imaging.
Comparative study between intracavitary therapy and intracavitary combined interstitial therapy under different HR-CTV volumes in three-dimensional brachytherapy for cervical cancer
Xiantao He, Shaojun Chen, Junwen Tan, Gang Li, Yongfu Feng, Yusong Long
[Abstract](240) [FullText HTML](83) [PDF 0KB](0)
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Objective To study the dosimetric differences between intracavitary and intracavitary/interstitial in three-dimensional brachytherapy for cervical cancer under different high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV), and to summarize whether there is threshold value for HR-CTV volume. Methods 100 patients with advanced cervical cancer who received radical radiotherapy in the oncology department of the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from October 2019 to February 2021 were selected, including 45 patients in the intracavitary therapy group and 55 patients in the intracavitary combined interstitial therapy group. The patients were 35-63 years old, with a median age of 51 years. According to the volume of HR-CTV of each plan,all brachytherapy plans are divided into six volume ranges with the volume interval of 10 cm3, namely≤40 cm3, 40~50 cm3, 50~60 cm3, 60~70 cm3, 70~80 cm3,>80 cm3. Independent sample T-test was used to compare the target dose (D90, D100), target coverage (V100), target high dose (D50, V150, V200), target conformity index (CI) and D2 cm3 of OAR (bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon, small intestine) of the two brachytherapy techniques in various volume ranges. Results When the volume of HR-CTV was less than 40 cm3, the target dose (D90, D100), target coverage (V100) and high dose of target (D50, V150, V200) in intracavitary were higher than those in intracavitary/interstitial(t=2.826~3.927, all P<0.05),but there was no significant difference in CI , D2 cm3 of bladder and rectum(t=0.186、1.871、0.258, all P>0.05). In the volume range of 70-80 cm3 and >80 cm3, the D90, D100, V100, CI and D2 cm3 of rectum and bladder in intracavitary/interstitial group were significantly better than those in intracavitary group alone (t=−4.693~3.782, all P<0.05), while the high dose in target (D50、V150、V200)of the two group was similar (t=0.613~1.417, P>0.05). The target parameters D90, D100, V100 and D2 cm3 of rectum in the volume range of 40 to 70 cm3 showed little difference (t=−0.837~−0.733, all P>0.05), but the CI of intracavitary/interstital group was significantly better than that of intracavitary group (t=−2.590、−4.577、−3.144, all P<0.05). Conclusions For a small volume target (≤40 cm3), intracavitary alone can better increase the dose of target and the high dose volume in target area without increasing the dose of OARs; when the target volume is large (>70 cm3), intracavitary/interstitial technique can significantly improve the prescribed dose and conformity of the target while better protecting the OAR.
Advances in imaging research on the early detection of anthracycline cardiotoxicity
Luxia Wang, Xinzhong Hao, Ruonan Wang, Sijin Li
[Abstract](1143) [FullText HTML](529) [PDF 0KB](2)
Abstract:
With the advancement of treating methods, the survival rate and survival time of tumor patients have improved significantly, but the cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) seriously threatens the health of tumor survivors, among which the cardiotoxicity caused by anthracyclines (ANTs) is extremely common and can lead to irreversible heart damage. Early detection and timely treatment of cardiotoxicity caused by ANTs is essential for the recovery of cardiac function, so early detection of cardiotoxicity is of great clinical importance. This article focuses on new imaging methods that may help to detect cardiotoxicity caused by ANTs early, including myocardial strain imaging by echocardiography, myocardial strain imaging and myocardial tissue quantification imaging by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and PET/CT imaging.
Research progress of radionuclide-labeled somatostatin receptor antagonists in the imaging and treatment of neuroendocrine neoplasms
Ling Yang, Qi Huang, Xianwen Hu, Pang Wang
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202105016-00175
[Abstract](885) [FullText HTML](654) [PDF 0KB](3)
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[Abstract]Overexpression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR), especially SSTR2 is a common feature of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) and an ideal target for NEN molecular imaging and radionuclide-targeted therapy. In the past, researchers have been working on radionuclide-labeled SSTR agonists, and have successfully used them for clinical imaging and treatment of NEN. Recent studies have shown that radionuclide-labeled SSTR antagonists have better pharmacokinetic characteristics, higher tumor uptake rates, longer retention time, and higher image contrast obtained than agonists. It is more superior in molecular imaging and radionuclide-targeted therapy of NEN. In this paper, the research progress of radionuclide-labeled SSTR antagonists in the imaging and treatment of NEN is reviewed, in order to provide reference for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of NEN.
Characteristics of 11C-CFT PET/CT imaging of dopamine transporter in 41 patients with Parkinson's disease
Guijuan Han, Xiaofei Xie, Pujiao Song, Minghua Wang
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202202001-00174
[Abstract](552) [FullText HTML](408) [PDF 0KB](1)
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Objective To investigate the characteristics of 11C-CFT brain dopamine transporter (DAT) PET/CT imaging, and to analyze its clinical diagnostic value in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 41 patients with primary PD who underwent 11C-CFT PET/CT brain imaging in The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University from August 2018 to February 2021, including 21 males and 20 females, aged from 34 to 81 years (57.6±12.2). According to H-Y grading, PD patients were divided into early PD group and late PD group. At the same time, 8 healthy volunteers matched with PD group were included as the normal control group, including 4 males and 4 females, aged from 42 to 72 (61.0±9.8) years. The 11C-CFT values of bilateral caudate nucleus, putamen and cerebellum were obtained by delineating the region of interest(ROI). The 11C-CFT values of bilateral caudate nucleus, putamen and nestriatum, asymmetry index and the ratio of putamen to caudate nucleus were calculated according to corresponding formula. Two independent samples' T-test and rank sum test were used to compare the grade data or measurement data. Chisquare test was used to compare the counting data, and Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation DAT distribution in striatum and clinical indicators in PD patients. Results In 11C-CFT PET/CT imaging, the radioactivity distribution of caudate nuclei in PD group was slightly reduced but still uniform, and the radioactivity distribution of putamen nuclei in PD group was reduced or sparse. In the early PD group, the radiation distribution of bilateral putamen was asymmetrically reduced or defective. The radiation distribution of bilateral putamen in advanced PD group was symmetrical and sparse. Compared with normal control group, the new striatum 11C-CFT value in PD group was decreasted, and the difference was statistically significant (7.69±2.42 vs. 12.29±2.75, t=4.818, P<0.001). The asymmetry index increased in PD group, and was most obvious in putamen (0.06±0.08 vs. 0.14±0.09, t=2.184, P<0.05). The ratio of 11C-CFT in putamen and caudate nucleus decreased in PD group, and the difference was statistically significant (1.13±0.13 vs. 0.74±0.21, t=4.929, P < 0.001). Compared with the early PD group, the late PD group had the most significant decrease in 11C-CFT uptake in the new striatum, and the difference was statistically significant (8.50±1.77 vs. 6.99±2.71, t=2.070, P<0.05). There were significant differences between the caudate nucleus and putamen asymmetry indexe in the PD group (0.06±0.06 vs. 0.11±0.08, 0.18±0.10 vs. 0.11±0.07, t=2.251, 2.858, both P<0.05). In PD group, 11C-CFT uptake index in striatum was correlated with age, onset age and H-Y grade (r=−0.444, −0.514, −0.426, all P<0.05), and correlated with putamen 11C-CFT uptake asymmetry index (r=0.331, P<0.05). The 11C-CFT values of caudate nucleus in PD group was negatively correlated with age, onset age and H-Y grade (r=−0.537, −0.581, −0.380, all P<0.05), but positively correlated with the putamen asymmetry index (r=0.410, P<0.05). In PD group, the putamen 11C-CFT was negatively correlated with the onset age and H-Y grade (r=−0.353, −0.453, both P<0.05), were positively correlated with the course of disease and the ratio of putamen to caudate nucleus (r=0.322, 0.396, both P<0.05). Conclusion On 11C-CFT DAT PET/CT brain imaging, PD patients mainly showed decreased radioactivity distribution in bilateral caudate nucleus and putamen. 11C-CFT DAT PET/CT brain imaging is helpful for diagnosis and severity assessment of PD.
Research progress of nano-drug delivery systems based on dendrimer materials for tumor targeted therapy
Qianqian Chen, Jinhe Zhang
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202106013-00166
[Abstract](1007) [FullText HTML](797) [PDF 0KB](2)
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Dendrimer materials emerging in recent years have emerged as excellent materials for constructing nano-drug delivery systems due to their controllable structures and unique interactions with cell membranes and various active drug molecules. In this paper, the recently research progress of nano-drug delivery systems based on dendrimer materials for tumor targeted therapy is reviewed.
Progress in diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland function changes in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after 131I treatment
Yangyang Qin, Wei Fu
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202102025-00136
[Abstract](5265) [FullText HTML](4330) [PDF 0KB](9)
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The impairment of salivary gland function is a common adverse reaction in radiotherapy and chemotherapy of head and neck tumors, which has a serious impact on the quality of life and treatment of patients. The incidence of salivary gland dysfunction increases with the increase of the incidence of head and neck diseases. Clear prevention and treatment methods are urgently needed. At present, a large number of domestic and foreign studies have revealed the possible mechanism of the impaired salivary gland function caused by radiation therapy and provided some prevention and treatment measures for clinical reference. This review focuses on the mechanism, symptoms, diagnosis and prevention of salivary gland dysfunction caused by 131I therapy.
Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Construction of a transferrin receptor targeting probe 99Tcm-T7 for noninvasive imaging of tumor
Qing Xiao, Xin Pan, Chongjiao Li, Yaqun Jiang, Yichun Wang, Bing Wen, Ping Lei, Yong He
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202110017-00167
[Abstract](708) [FullText HTML](513) [PDF 2598KB](2)
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Objective To develop the radiolabeled peptide molecular tracer His-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Ala-His (99Tcm-T7) targeting transferrin receptor and evaluate the targeting ability in tumor-bearing mice models imaging. Methods The peptide T7 was labeled with 99Tcm using tricine and EDDA as co-ligand. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to assess expression levels of TfR in PANC-1 tumor cells (human pancreatic tumor cell lines) and MX-1 tumor cells (human breast tumor cell lines) using commercial TfR monoclonal antibody. Cell binding and competitive blocking assays was conducted to analyze the binding affinity and specificity of 99Tcm-T7 in vitro. Micro SPECT/CT imaging and biodistribution after establishment of mice xenograft models were undertaken in vivo to evaluate the affinity and feasibility of noninvasive imaging directed against malignancy. The radio-autographs assay and immunohistochemical staining were performed to validate the correlation between the uptake of 99Tcm-T7 and expression levels of TfR in tumor tissues. Unpaired t test was used for statistical analysis between two groups. Results PANC-1 tumor cell lines were identified to overexpress TfR on surface with higher binding tendency to bind TfR monoclonal antibody((98.9±0.1)%), while MX-1 with no or low TfR expression on membrane[(0.2±0.1)%]. The radiolabeled probe 99Tcm-T7 was synthesized with radiolabeling yield of greater than 95%, which exhibited great stability in vitro saline and serum solution. In vitro cell binding assay, 99Tcm-T7 probe had higher tendency to bind to PANC-1 cell ((16.12±0.01)%) than MX-1((1.20±0.01)%, t=28.67, P=0.001)). By blocking the binding site of 99Tcm-T7 with unlabeled peptide, a significant reduction in cell uptake was observed on PANC-1 cell. Micro SPECT/CT imaging revealed that 99Tcm-T7 quickly cleared from blood and mainly eliminated fom kidney. Tumor uptakes of 99Tcm-T7 at 30 min post administration in PANC-1 tumors were visually higher than obsevered in MX-1 tumors, with tumor-to-muscle ratio 2.80±0.22. The biodistribution was consistent with SPECT/CT images, which showed tumor uptakes were (0.55±0.18)%ID/g vs. (0.16±0.11)%ID/g respectively for PANC-1 and MX-1 tumor-bearing mice models 30 min post injection (t=6.42, P=0.003). The radio-autographs assay showed that PANC-1 tumors showed considerable higher uptake than MX-1 tumors at 30 min after administration, and the highest uptake in normal organs was observed in kidney, and the second in liver. In HE staining and immunohistochemical staining study, no obvious necrosis was observed in the tumor parenchyma. PANC-1 tumor tissues were validated to overexpress TfR and MX-1 tumor with low TfR expression. Conclusion This newly developed peptide probe 99Tcm-T7 successfully targeted on distinct TfR expression in tumor visualization system with desirable characteristics in stability and pharmacokinetics, which demonstrated potential utility as future dedicated TfR-targeted imaging strategy.
Practical evaluation of different renal-depth estimation formulas in renal dynamic imaging for patients with horseshoe kidney
Hao Wu, Dong Duan
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202105002-00173
[Abstract](719) [FullText HTML](519) [PDF 1685KB](9)
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Objective To validate the accuracy of different estimation formulas for measuring renal depth in patients with horseshoe kidney using CT actual measured renal-depth as a reference standard. Methods The clinical data of 55 patients with horseshoe kidney from January 2015 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. These patients included 33 males and 22 females aged 19–80 (42.2±16.3) years. The vertical distance between the farthest and nearest points of the renal hilum and the skin of both kidneys were selected respectively, and the average value was taken as the renal-depth. The gender, age, height, and weight of the patients were recorded. The estimated renal-depths were obtained using the Tonnesen, Taylor, and Li Qian formulas. Paired t test, Pearson correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis were performed between the estimated and CT measured renal-depths. Results In 55 patients, the renal-depths calculated by the Tonnesen, Taylor, and Li Qian formulas were all lower than the CT measured renal-depths, and the differences were all statistically significant (left kidney: t=–14.04 to –6.85, all P<0.01; right kidney: t=−15.19 to −8.47, all P<0.01). A significant correlation existed between formulas estimated and CT measured renal-depths (r=0.430−0.528, all P<0.001), but the Li Qian formula correlated better than the Tonnesen and Taylor formula, where the correlation coefficient was (r=0.528, P<0.001) for the left kidney and (r=0.484, P<0.001) for the right kidney. All formulas underestimated the renal-depth; the estimated error increased with increased renal-depth, and the difference was statistically significant (95%CI: (0.805–1.471) to (2.347–3.061), all P<0.001). The bias between the renal-depths estimated by the Tonnesen formula and those measured by CT was the largest (left kidney: (2.38±1.24) cm; right kidney: (2.69±1.30) cm). Although the correlation coefficients of the Taylor and Tonnesen formulas were closer, the Taylor formula had better agreement, with biases of (1.76±1.29) and (1.70±1.32) cm for the left and right kidneys, respectively. The bias between the renal-depths derived from the Li Qian formula and those measured by CT was smaller (left kidney: (1.14±1.22) cm; right kidney: (1.46±1.27) cm). Conclusions The accuracy of renal-depth in patients with horseshoe kidney calculated using Tonnesen, Taylor, and Li Qian formulas were not as good as the actual CT measurement. Therefore, to accurately assess glomerular filtration rate, CT is recommended to measure the renal-depth of patients with horseshoe kidney.
Correlation and prognosis evaluation of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging findings with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients
Zhitian Lin, Songhao Cai, Jingui Huang, Zhaohua Huang
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202102028-00170
[Abstract](630) [FullText HTML](468) [PDF 2035KB](1)
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Objective To investigate the correlation between 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging findings and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (HRCA) in patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM), and the value of both combined applications in evaluating the prognosis of patients with MM. Methods The clinical and imaging data of 44 patients with MM diagnosed by bone marrow histopathology and laboratory examination and who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging before treatment in Shantou Central Hospital from June 2016 to November 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, including 23 males and 21 females, aged 38–91 (61.1±9.6) years old. Patients were divided into the HRCA group and the non-HRCA group according to the result of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Patients were divided into stage Ⅰ+Ⅱ group and stage Ⅲ group according to the Revised-International Staging System (R-ISS). Patients were divided into two groups, a standard-risk group, and a high-risk group according to the Mayo Stratification of Myeloma and Risk-adapted Therapy (mSMART) 3.0 risk stratification criteria. Through the analysis of the 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging data, patients were divided into ≤3 groups and >3 groups according to the number of focal lesions (FLs), divided into ≤4.2 groups and >4.2 groups according to maximum standardized uptake value(SUVmax), divided into extramedullary disease(EMD) group and non-EMD group according to the presence of EMD lesions, respectively. Gather data on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) begins from the first follow-up. Imaging findings with clinical features, HRCA, and prognostic stages were compared using the χ2 test. The independent risk factors of HRCA and stages were analyzed using the multivariate logistic regression analysis. The differences between PFS and OS among the groups were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank test. The independent risk factors of PFS and OS were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results FLs≤3 or >3 varied among groups of R-ISS, mSMART 3.0, and HRCA (χ2=4.919, 8.472, 8.167; all P<0.05). EMD or non-EMD varied among groups of mSMART 3.0 and HRCA (χ2=4.061,6.808; both P<0.05). FLs>3 were independent risk factors for HRCA, R-ISS, and mSMART 3.0 (OR=10.952, 5.000, 10.714; 95%CI: 1.195–100.393, 1.127–22.181, 2.269–50.598; all P<0.05). PFS and OS varied among groups of EMD and HRCA (PFS: χ2=8.572, 9.023; both P<0.01 and OS: χ2=6.030, 4.877; both P<0.05). EMD was an independent poor prognosis factor for both PFS and OS (OR=4.466, 6.520; 95%CI: 1.084–18.396, 1.174–36.211; both P<0.05). HRCA was an independent poor prognosis factor for PFS (OR=8.458, 95%CI: 1.671–42.812, P<0.05). By the end of follow-up, patients without EMD and HRCA or only one of them had not reached median PFS and median OS; median PFS for patients with both EMD and HRCA was 11 months (χ2=20.903, P<0.001) and median OS were 17 months (χ2=10.656, P<0.01). Conclusion There is a significant correlation between 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging findings and HRCA in patients newly diagnosed with MM, and the combination of both has a certain predictive value for the prognosis of patients with MM.
Exploration of the prediction model for the optimal initial dose of levothyroxine sodium tablets in patients with DTC after radioactive 131I treatment
Yuanfang Yue, Jianjing Liu, Guotao Yin, Dong Dai, Wengui Xu
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202111005-00171
[Abstract](545) [FullText HTML](351) [PDF 1398KB](3)
Abstract:
Objective To construct a prediction model for the optimal initial dose of levothyroxine sodium tablets in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after radioiodine 131I therapy by machine learning. Methods A total of 266 DTC patients [78 males (male group) and 188 females (female group), aged 18 to 70 (40.0+11.5) years old] who received 131I therapy followed by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy in the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Konggang Hospital, Tianjin Cancer Hospital between November 2019 and November 2020 were retrospectively analyzed for final compliance. A total of 16 clinical and biochemical indicators and data related to thyroid function were obtained, and each adjusted dose of levothyroxine sodium tablets was collected from patients with regular post-discharge rechecks. The indicators strongly correlated with the optimal dose of levothyroxine sodium tablets were screened by calculating random forest feature importance. A wide variety of regression models were constructed with the selected indicators and optimal dose of levothyroxine sodium tablets as independent and dependent variables, respectively. Selected the most accurate model using the cross-validation method. Counting data were compared between male and female groups using the chi-square test of independence. Results Body weight, height, body mass index, body surface area, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, postoperative parathyroid hormone, and the reaching levothyroxine sodium tablets dose of 266 patients were (68.4±12.9) kg, (165.8±12.8) cm, (24.6±3.5), (1.9±0.2) m2, (140.1±19.1) g/L, (88.6±5.5) fl, (125.7±18.9)/(82.7±12.4) mm Hg, (4.1±2.2) pmol/L, and (117.0±30.1) μg/d, respectively. Six indicators with a strong correlation with levothyroxine sodium tablets dose were screened using the feature selection method. According to the order of importance, the six indicators were body surface area, body weight, hemoglobin, height, body mass index, and age. Their average random forest importances were 0.2805, 0.1951, 0.1315, 0.1252, 0.1080 and 0.0819 respectively. The support vector regression (SVR) model using radial basis kernel had the highest accuracy (53.4%, 142/266) by cross-training validation. In addition, in this study, SVR's accuracy rate was significantly higher than the first success rate of empirical administration of levothyroxine sodium tablets (15.0%, 40/266). Moreover, the SVR model's accuracy was compared by dividing the patients into different subgroups according to gender. The results showed that the female patient group's accuracy was significantly higher than that of the male group [60.6% (114/188) vs. 35.9% (28/78)], with a statistically significant difference (χ2=13.51, P<0.001). Conclusions The SVR model is constructed based on machine learning and is expected to improve the first success rate of levothyroxine sodium tablets in DTC patients after being treated with 131I. It is more pronounced in female patients and helps to improve the quality of life and prognosis among DTC patients.
Research progress on the sensitivity of radioactive iodine therapy and its influencing factors in differentiated thyroid cancer
Zhang Jing, Xi Jia, Aomei Zhao, Aimin Yang
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202103030-00168
[Abstract](1241) [FullText HTML](906) [PDF 1747KB](1)
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Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is one of the critical treatments for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The therapeutic effect is mainly related to the uptake ability of tumor lesions to RAI and radiosensitivity of the tumor cells. The sensitivity to RAI therapy may be improved by the two aforementioned directions in patients who are unsatisfactory in the evaluation of response to RAI therapy. By analyzing the relevant signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms that affect RAI therapy in DTC patients in recent years, the authors summarize the relevant mechanisms affecting RAI uptake, including sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression and plasma membrane localization, as well as the DNA damage repair mechanisms that affect the radiosensitivity of RAI. It is expected to provide direction for the basic and clinical research of internal irradiation sensitization therapy for DTC patients.
Study on fluence splitting of single-beam multi-arc in Monaco planning system
Jinlei Yang, Mingwei Bu, Shuchang Li, Weitian Zhang, Mingzhe Liu, Kairan Hou, Boyu Liu
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202009013-00163
[Abstract](987) [FullText HTML](715) [PDF 1515KB](0)
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Objective To study the specific splitting mode of fluence in Monaco planning system with single-beam multi-arc. Methods (1) Simulation plan: two, three, and four cylindrical structures were drawn along the x direction on the CT image of the cylindrical Delta4 phantom with uniform density to simulate three cases that need to irradiate two, three, and four isolated target volumes at the same time, respectively, to observe the relationship between the shape of the irradiation fields and the target volumes and analyze their regularity. (2) Patient irradiation: the following past cases in Jilin Cancer Hospital were completely random selected: one case of whole brain prophylactic irradiation, one case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and one case of cervical cancer. Three volume-modulated arc therapy plans were designed for each patient. A 360° beam was used in all plans, and the difference is that the numbers of arcs were two, three, and four, respectively. The gantry angles of all real case plans were set to 0°, the real patient plans were delivered on the accelerator, and the Matrixx dose verification system was used to measure the total dose of the plans and the partial dose per arc. Compare the positional relationship between the total dose for each plan and its dose per arc. Results The results of simulation plan and patient irradiation study showed that on the beam's eye view (BEV), the fluence was divided along the x-axis, and the number of fluence divisions was equal to the number of arcs in the plan. Each arc was illuminated from left to right in the BEV direction in sequence. Conclusion The fluence splitting mode in Monaco planning system was elucidated, providing guidance for its practical application in clinic.
Application value of digital tomosynthesis at supraspinatus exit position in the diagnosis of subacromial impingement syndrome
Hui Zhou, Xueming Wang, Xin Qi, Jiao Du, Tao Wang, Lei Shi
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202101020-00172
[Abstract](645) [FullText HTML](430) [PDF 2610KB](2)
Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the value of X-ray digital tomosynthesis (DTS) at the supraspinatus outlet for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) diagnosis. Methods From July 2017 to January 2020, the clinical and imaging data of 121 patients with or without SIS diagnosed by clinical, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), digital radiography (DR), and DTS examination in Bayannur Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Patients comprised 69 males and 52 females, with an age range of 24–77 (55.2±22.3) years. The difference of acromion morphology in three imaging examinations between the two groups was tested through the χ2 test. The acromio-humeral interval (AHI) between the two groups was compared through variance analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to calculate the area under curve (AUC), and chi-square test was employed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of AHI measured through three imaging examinations. Results (1) MRI, DR, and DTS showed statistically significant differences in acromion morphology between the SIS group and non-SIS group (χ2=12.53, 26.58; all P < 0.001). (2) In terms of AHI measurement, MRI, DR, and DTS imaging methods demonstrated statistically significant differences in the AHI diagnosis between the SIS group and the non-SIS group [SIS group: (8.37±1.21) mm vs. (8.91±1.50) mm vs. (8.66±1.25) mm; non-SIS group: (10.44±1.06) mm vs. (9.69±0.97) mm vs. (9.89±0.65) mm, F=−26.73, −18.27, P<0.005]. Pairwise comparison of the three imaging methods revealed that statistically significant difference existed between MRI and DR in the SIS group (t=18.10, P=0.02), whereas no statistically significant difference existed between MRI and DTS or between DR and DTS (t=10.02, 12.54; all P>0.05). No statistically significant differences existed between MRI and DR, MRI and DTS, or DR and DTS in the non-SIS group (t=12.00, 16.77, 20.59; all P>0.05). (3) The AUC of MRI, DTS, and DR AHI in the SIS group were 0.906, 0.808, 0.677, and 95%CI were 0.839–0.951, 0.727–0.874, 0.586–0.760, respectively; the differences among them were statistically significant (Z=3.005, P<0.05). Conclusion Supraspinatus outlet DTS is a relatively economical and practical imaging method for SIS diagnosis and can be used to examine patients experiencing shoulder discomfort.
Research progress of PET molecular probes in rheumatoid arthritis
Yifan Zhang, Xingxing Zhu, Shicun Wang, Qiang Xie
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202104021-00169
[Abstract](859) [FullText HTML](668) [PDF 1226KB](0)
Abstract:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis with unknown etiology, which often involves the facet joints of hands and feet, showing symmetrical and invasive arthritis changes, resulting in joint deformities and even loss of function. Different from traditional imaging methods, PET provides an imaging method at the cellular level and is a potential and highly sensitive method for the evaluation of synovitis. In this paper, clinical application and research progress of PET molecular probes in RA were reviewed in order to provide ideas for the diagnosis of RA.
Clinical application and new progress of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in pancreatic cancer
Zaizhu Zhang, Nina Zhou, Hua Zhu, Zhi Yang
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202103032-00164
[Abstract](1013) [FullText HTML](757) [PDF 1191KB](4)
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Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor with higher malignancy, easy metastasis, rapid progression and poor prognosis, so early diagnosis, accurate staging and timely efficacy evaluation are crucial for patients with pancreatic cancer. As a novel multimodality imaging technology, integrated PET/MRI combines the advantages of high soft-tissue resolution, multi-sequences, multi-parameters of MRI and high sensitivity of PET metabolic imaging, it has potential application value in tumor staging efficacy evaluation, prognosis prediction, and recurrence monitoring of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, this paper reviews the advantages of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/MRI and its clinical application and new progress in pancreatic cancer.
Clinical application of eZIS in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementia by cerebral blood perfusion SPECT
Sifei Wang, Yongshuai Qi, Guiping Li
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202103002-00165
[Abstract](832) [FullText HTML](613) [PDF 1214KB](0)
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The easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) is a statistical analysis method based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) to assist the automatic diagnosis of cerebral blood perfusion SPECT imaging, which can be used in the diagnosis of nervous system diseases such as dementia, Parkinson disease, ataxia and motor neuron disease. Compared with other computer-aided analysis methods, eZIS can provide a normal database, and realize data sharing among different institutions through image conversion program, so that the future multi-center, large sample clinical research is possible. In this review, the clinical application of eZIS in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementia by cerebral blood perfusion SPECT is reviewed in order to improve clinicians' understanding of eZIS and promote its application in clinical and scientific research work.
18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of double lung multiple nodular amyloidosis: a case report
Weiwei Jiang, Yichao Wang
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202103017-00157
[Abstract](827) [FullText HTML](636) [PDF 3035KB](0)
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A case of double lung multiple nodular amyloidosis with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging was reported. The characteristics of the disease were analyzed from clinical symptoms, imaging manifestations and pathological diagnosis. The understanding of pulmonary amyloidosis was deepened through literature review. The incidence of pulmonary nodular amyloidosis is low, the clinical symptoms are atypical, and it is difficult to differentiate from common lung tumors. It is suggested that the possibility of pulmonary nodular amyloidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules. Therefore, 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging is very important to evaluate the extent of double lung multiple nodular amyloidosis.
A case of 18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of lung malignant mesenchymoma and literature review
Rongrong Hu, Kehui Yuan, Jiangshan Huang, Hui Wang
 doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202101008-00155
[Abstract](1495) [FullText HTML](1081) [PDF 2596KB](1)
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Malignant mesenchymoma(MM) is a a kind of soft tissue sarcoma composed of two or more different types of malignant mesenchymal components with a low incidence. The authors reported a special case of MM, which occurred in lung and was found by 18F-FDG PET/CT examination. The features of MM were analyzed from clinical symptoms, laboratory examination, imaging findings and related literature reports, in order to deepen clinicians' understanding of lung MM.
Analysis of related factors of bone marrow suppression induced by strontium-89 chloride in the treatment of bone metastasis
Kangqi Liu, Haizhong Zhou
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202101032-00154
[Abstract](2267) [FullText HTML](1888) [PDF 1273KB](5)
Abstract:
89Sr is a radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of bone metastasis, especially widespread bone metastasis of the whole body, but its clinical application is limited due to the adverse effect of myelosuppression. In addition to the radiobiological effects of 89Sr itself, high bone tumor burden of skeleton at 89Sr treatment, external radiotherapy before 89Sr treatment, chemotherapy and androgen suppression therapy before 89Sr treatment are the main factors of myelosuppression when using 89Sr to treat bone tumor metastasis. The authors analyzed the related factors of myelosuppression in the treatment of tumor bone metastasis with 89Sr.
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2022, 46(3).  
[Abstract](268) [PDF 3172KB](9)
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contents
2022, 46(3): 1-4.  
[Abstract](266) [FullText HTML](154) [PDF 749KB](10)
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Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the differentiation of secondary renal lymphoma and renal immune disease
Dongyan Lu, Enci Ding, Tianpeng Hu, Jie Shen
2022, 46(3): 131-138.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202103019-00149
[Abstract](2627) [FullText HTML](1855) [PDF 2072KB](11)
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Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging in patients with secondary renal lymphoma (SRL) and its differential analysis with renal immune disease (RID). Methods The 18F-FDG PET/CT images and clinical characteristics of 12 patients with SRL confirmed by histopathological examination or clinical comprehensive diagnosis in Tianjin First Central Hospital from December 2017 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients in the SRL group comprised 7 males and 5 females, aged 50±15 years. At the same time, 10 patients with positive 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and final diagnosis of RID were selected, including 2 cases of IgG4-related kidney disease and 8 cases of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. These 5 males and 5 females, aged 60±10 years, comprised the RID group. Ten healthy subjects with normal kidneys by 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging were selected as the healthy control group (5 males and 5 females, aged 55±10 years). The 18F-FDG PET/CT features of renal and extrarenal invasion were observed and recorded. The maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of renal lesion or renal cortex, the ratio of SUVmax in renal lesion or renal cortex to mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) of liver, and SUVmax of extrarenal invasions were measured and calculated. One-way ANOVA was used to compare SUVmax and ratio of standardized uptake value (SUVratio) among the three groups, and independent sample t test was used to compare SUVmax of extrarenal 18F-FDG uptake in the SRL group and RID group. Results The 12 patients with SRL exhibited multifocal masses (n=6) and diffuse nephromegaly (n=6) in bilater kidneys with abnormally increased 18F-FDG uptake. In 10 patients with RID, the 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of the affected kidneys showed bilateral diffuse nephromegaly with increased 18F-FDG uptake of renal parenchyma, which was similar to diffuse nephromegaly in SRL. However, in terms of extrarenal involvement, the patients in the RID group had common sites of involvement, and the patients in the SRL group were mostly associated with the involvement of different tissues and organs of the whole body, with irregular distribution. Statistical analysis showed that SUVmax and SUVratio of renal lesions in the SRL group were significantly higher than those in the RID group (21.88±12.04 vs. 9.09±3.51 and 11.38±6.52 vs. 3.67±1.12, respectively), and SUVmax and SUVratio of renal lesions in the two groups were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group (SUVmax=3.23±0.39, SUVratio=1.47±0.25; F=17.189, 18.361; both P<0.001). 18F-FDG SUVmax of extrarenal lesions in the SRL group was significantly higher than that in the RID group (27.67±15.09 vs. 7.55±3.70, t=−3.889, P=0.001). Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT has a good clinical value in the diagnosis of SRL and the evaluation of systemic involvement, and it is helpful in distinguishing SRL from RID.
Comparative analysis of the application value of 18F-FDG PET/MRI and MRI in preoperative T, N staging of patients with esophageal cancer
Jinzi Hui, Lei Wang, Deshan Zhao, Menghui Yuan, Longxiao Wei, Yunbo Li, Jianlin Xu, Changbei Shi
2022, 46(3): 139-145.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202102020-00158
[Abstract](820) [FullText HTML](500) [PDF 2268KB](2)
Abstract:
Objective To compare the application value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/MRI and MRI in the preoperative T and N staging of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods The clinical and imaging data of 30 patients who underwent radical resection for esophageal cancer in the Second Affiliated Hospital of the Air Force Military Medical University from January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The sample included 25 males and 5 females, aged 42–77(62.9±8.0) years old. All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/MRI examination within 2 weeks before operation, and the postoperative histopathological examination results were used as the “gold standard” for staging. The Kappa test was employed to evaluate the consistency of 18F-FDGPET/MRI and MRI in the preoperative T and N staging of patients with esophageal cancer and in postoperative histopathological staging. The staging accuracy was compared using the χ2 test, and the values of the maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax), mean standardized uptake (SUVmean), apparent diffusion coefficient minimum vaalue (ADCmin), and apparent diffusion coefficient mean value (ADCmean) of metastatic lymph nodes and benign lymph nodes were compared using independent sample t test. Results 18F-FDG PET/MRI and MRI showed strong consistency in the preoperative T staging and postoperative histopathological staging of patients with esophageal cancer (Kappa value=0.757, 0.698; both P<0.001). The accuracy rates of 18F-FDG PET/MRI and MRI in the diagnosis of preoperative T staging in patients with esophageal cancer were 83.3% (25/30) and 80.0% (24/30) respectively, with no significant difference (χ2=0.110, P>0.05). The diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/MRI for preoperative N staging in patients with esophageal cancer was higher than that of MRI (76.7% (23/30) vs. 66.7% (20/30)), and the difference was statistically significant (χ2=11.273, P<0.01). The SUVmax and SUVmean values of the metastatic lymph nodes were higher than those of the benign lymph nodes (5.77±2.66 vs. 2.79±1.29 and 3.16±1.28 vs. 1.78±1.01, respectively), and the difference was statistically significant (t=6.39, 5.96; both P<0.001). Furthermore, the ADCmin of metastatic lymph nodes was lower than that of benign lymph nodes (1.02±0.33 vs. 1.20±0.24), and the difference was statistically significant (t=−3.81, P<0.001). In comparison, there was no statistical significance in the comparison of ADCmean (t=−1.52, P>0.05). Conclusions The value of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in the preoperative T staging of patients with esophageal cancer is comparable to that of MRI, while its diagnostic performance for preoperative N staging of patients with esophageal cancer is better than MRI. Thus, it can be considered the preferred non-invasive preoperative staging method for patients with esophageal cancer.
Monitoring and results analyses of eye lens doses of some interventional radiology workers in Chongqing
Huadong Zhang, Mengyun Wu, Yan Zhang, Lisha Mou, Jinghua Zhou
2022, 46(3): 146-151.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202111006-00160
[Abstract](799) [FullText HTML](504) [PDF 1461KB](2)
Abstract:
Objective To investigated the dose of eye lens of some interventional-radiology workers in three hospitals in Chongqing, as well as to analyze the related factors and to put forward the countermeasures to reduce the equivalent dose. Methods A total of 99 interventional radiology workers (92 males and 7 females; aged 20–40(30.0±6.2) years) from three hospitals (two general hospitals and one cancer hospital) in Chongqing were included. They were monitored by thermoluminescence dosimetry for one month, and the annual equivalent dose of eye lens was estimated according to the number of surgeries. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the difference in lens equivalent dose between the left and right eyes of interventional radiology workers. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the factors influencing lens equivalent dose in the left and right eyes of interventional-radiology workers. Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to analyze the difference in the overall distribution of lens equivalent dose of the left or right eyes of interventional-radiology workers in three hospitals with different operation types. Bonferroni method was used to compare the lens equivalent dose of left or right eyes with different operation types. Results For the 99 interventional radiologists in the three hospitals, the median estimated annual equivalent dose was 5.38(2.46, 13.10) mSv for the left eyes and 3.54(1.55, 8.48) mSv for the right eyes. The estimated annual equivalent dose of the lens in the left and right eyes of two radiation workers were 42.72 mSv and 48.00 mSv respectively, which were close to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's single annual dose limit of 50 mSv. They did not exceed the annual equivalent dose limit of 150 mSv for eye lens in China. A significant difference existed in the equivalent dose of lens in the left and right eyes of interventional-radiology workers in three hospitals (Z=−5.599, P<0.001). Among the influencing factors, gender, smoking habit, operation exposure time, and instrument output dose had no significant effect on the equivalent dose of left and right eyes (β=−2.007–7.694; all P>0.05). A significant difference existed in the equivalent dose of lens in the left eye between the lower extremity venography and coronary angiography or other operations (H=24.115, 39.569; both P<0.05). A significant difference existed in the equivalent dose of lens in the right eye between lower extremity venography and hepatic artery chemoembolization or other operations (H=23.719, 39.347; both P<0.05). Conclusions The estimated annual equivalent dose of some interventional-radiology workers in three hospitals in Chongqing did not exceed the existing national standard. Attention should be paid to the shift arrangement, protective measures, and health monitoring of medical workers in lower extremity venography operation.
Research progress of heart rate and blood pressure changes in stress myocardial perfusion imaging for predicting female cardiovascular events
Yuxin Xiao, Ping Wu, Yuting Zhao, Sijin Li
2022, 46(3): 152-156.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202107020-00161
[Abstract](861) [FullText HTML](520) [PDF 1293KB](1)
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Compared with men, women have different anatomical and physiological basis of coronary artery and neurohormone levels, resulting in more often from non-obstructive coronary microvascular dysfunction. Absolute quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a noninvasive functional examination, which increases diagnosis performance, treatment evaluation, and prognostic evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). The change of heart rate and blood pressure in stress test, as the alternative indicator of autonomic nerve function, has a role in predicting blood perfusion parameters and adverse cardiovascular events. This review summarizes the gain value of stress MPI heart rate and blood pressure change on CAD diagnosis and risk assessment, so as to provide a basis for promoting the clinical application of stress MPI and formulating a diagnosis and treatment plan aimed to improving female autonomic nerve function.
Research progress of 18F-AlF-labeled peptide molecular probes in PET tumor imaging
Jingya Han, Yang Chen, Yan Zhao, Xinming Zhao
2022, 46(3): 157-161.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202012034-00156
[Abstract](1182) [FullText HTML](764) [PDF 1395KB](4)
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With the wide application of PET in clinic, 18F-AlF-labeled peptide biomolecular probes are increasing in the spotlight. The procedure of 18F-AlF labeling of biomolecule conjugates is simple, valid and has tremendous potential. 18F-AlF-biomolecule conjugates PET imaging has high sensitivity and spatial resolution, with ideal quantification properties to trace biological targets of various tumors, so as to provide important information for accurate diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Part of them are in clinical research stage and show a broad scope in future clinical application. In this paper, the authors review the current process of 18F-AlF-labeled peptide molecular probes for PET tumor imaging.
Research progress of molecular imaging diagnosis of endometriosis
Li Zhang, Min Wang, Xiaoli Lan, Wei Cao
2022, 46(3): 162-167.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202108020-00153
[Abstract](2805) [FullText HTML](2233) [PDF 1352KB](9)
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Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease with a high incidence in women of childbearing age and has a wide range of sites in the body. Conventional imaging examinations and laparoscopy cannot effectively detect systemic, small and insidious endometriosis lesions. Radionuclide labeled choline analogs, estrogen analogs and somatostatin analogs have the potential to detect endometriosis lesions, and can provide functional and metabolic information of endometriosis lesions, which have special value for the diagnosis of endometriosis. In this paper, the diagnostic methods of endometriosis are reviewed, and the research progress of molecular imaging diagnosis of endometriosis is disscussed.
Clinical application and progress of PET/CT in multiple myeloma
Junlong Li, Xiaoli Lan, Guoxiang Cao
2022, 46(3): 168-173.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202109016-00150
[Abstract](3457) [FullText HTML](2843) [PDF 1249KB](13)
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a proliferous plasma cell malignancy. Abnormal proliferation of clonal plasma cells could not only involve skeletal system but also invade extramedullary and cause tissues or organs damage. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT has become one of the most primary imaging methods for condition evaluation of MM by monitoring systemic glucose metabolism. The authors review the clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis, staging, efficacy evaluation and prognosis prediction of MM, analyze its limitations, also introduce and prospect the application of new molecular probes in MM, in order to improve the clinicians' understanding of the clinical value of PET/CT in the diagnosis and treatment of MM, and further play the essential role of PET/CT in the clinical decision-making of MM.
Application research progress of molecular imaging in diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications
Jun Li, Xingdang Liu
2022, 46(3): 174-179.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202007026-00159
[Abstract](960) [FullText HTML](661) [PDF 1273KB](3)
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and metabolic disease affecting more than 400 million people in the world. The pathogenesis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with the decrease or functional impairment of pancreatic β cells. With long-term hyperglycemia, diabetic patients will develop cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, diabetic foot and other complications. This paper reviews the application research progress of different types of PET and SPECT molecular imaging in the function monitoring of pancreatic β cells, and early diagnosis of diabetic complications such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, autonomic neuropathy, brain abnormalities and diabetic foot in diabetic patients.
The application value of automated bone scan index in bone metastasis of prostate cancer
Hui Ming, Hui Yu, Yuanhao Chen
2022, 46(3): 180-184.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202102006-00148
[Abstract](2628) [FullText HTML](2117) [PDF 1265KB](2)
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The incidence rate of prostate cancer (PCa) ranks first among all male tumors, and PCa is prone to bone metastasis, which is characterized by pain, decreased quality of life, fractures, bone functional decline, impairment of hematopoiesis, and reduced survival rate. Bone scan index (BSI) is a method to quantitatively measure the severity of bone diseases. It can not only quantitatively evaluate the degree of bone tumor involvement in PCa patients, but also incorporate fully quantitative assessments of disease burden in associating bone scintigraphy post-treatment changes with clinical examination outcome, to assess progression or remisson of disease. In this paper, BSI, the development of automated BSI and its research in PCa are reviewed to provide reference for clinical practice.
Research progress on the mechanism of nuclear receptors in tumor radiosensitization
Xiaoqian Li, Sheng Jiang, Shuyu Zhang
2022, 46(3): 185-192.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202102016-00162
[Abstract](908) [FullText HTML](588) [PDF 1420KB](1)
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Radiotherapy has become one of the main approaches in cancer treatment. However, tumor have radioresistance and normal tissues have radiation tolerant doses, both seriously affect the effect of cancer radiotherapy. It is of importance to develop radiation sensitizers to improve the radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Nuclear receptors are a kind of transcription factor superfamily, which are abundantly expressed in cells and participates in various pathophysiological processes. Recent studies have suggested that nuclear receptors and their related ligands may play important roles in tumor radioresistanace, which provide novel targets for radiosensitization. In this review, the research progress of nuclear receptors and related ligands in tumor radiosensitization is discussed.
Hepatic paragonimiasis revealed by 18F-FDG PET/CT: a case report
Jin Wang, Runlong Lin
2022, 46(3): 193-196.   doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121381-202012043-00143
[Abstract](2337) [FullText HTML](1760) [PDF 2954KB](9)
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The authors report a case of hepatic paragonimiasis with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT imaging, which is rare in clinic and easily misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma or liver abscess. After entering the human body, paragonimiasis can lead to multi-system and multi-organ lesions. PET/CT as a systemic examination can find more organs involved, so as to make a more accurate diagnosis of liver paragonimiasis, strengthen understanding and reduce misdiagnosis.

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